The bronchiectasis are a chronic lung disease characterized by the formation of permanent and irreversible dilation of the bronchial wall. This anatomical modification promotes the accumulation of mucus within the respiratory tract, a condition that can promote the replication of bacteria and viruses. It can therefore lead to recurrent respiratory infections , which coincide with flare-ups of the disease.
The causes can be congenital , in a relatively low percentage of cases, or acquired. The acquired bronchiectasis may be, in turn, caused by previous respiratory infections or neglected by bronchial obstruction. In both cases, the common mechanism by which these causes lead to the onset of bronchiectasis is represented by chronic inflammation .
This pathology can present itself, especially in its initial phase, with mild symptoms ( paucisymptomatic form ). Hence, they can be confused with the signs of a bronchitis, or in asymptomatic form . The manifestations appear over the years and are mostly represented by chronic cough with production of large quantities of mucus and dyspnea . The most severe forms are usually found in people with advanced cystic fibrosis .
hey are diagnosed after reconstructing the patient’s history and performing tests such as chest radiography and high-resolution pulmonary CT . The envisaged treatment must be personalized on a case-by-case basis. It consists of a pharmacological approach, medical therapies (such as respiratory physiotherapy) and, in specific cases, surgery.
For the quality of life to remain satisfactory, it is necessary that the patient adheres to the prescriptions scrupulously, but also that he follows a healthy lifestyle, giving up smoking, alcohol and going out in very low temperatures.